Publishing elaborations

- Labour pedagogy
- Vocational counselling in VLC and schools

Labour pedagogy
Stefan M. Kwiatkowski, Andrzej Bogaj, Barbara Baraniak
Warsaw: Academic and Professional Publications, 2007, s. 235

      Official basics of work pedagogy as the pedagogic discipline are dating back from 1972. Since then passed 35 years; labour pedagogy worked out the scientific and methodological bases of its existence and more further favourable functioning, has been disseminated and recognized not only by educationalists. In creating scientific and methodological bases of this new pedagogic discipline, specific and at the same time strategic role have played:
prof. Tadeusz W. Nowacki - creator of labour pedagogy on polish soil,
prof. Zygmunt Wiatrowski - author of many academic workbook mutations, mainly recognized as Fundamentals of labour pedagogy (four editions),
prof. Stanisław Kaczor and other significant people in the past and present, included among the co-coordinators of work pedagogy, and also Institute of Vocational Training, established in the years 1972-1990 and National Education Seminar of Work Pedagogy from the seventies and eighties.       Not accidental number of appeals the Authors reviewed of the textbook from 2007 to the above names and institutions, especially to the academic and scientific achievements of prof. W. Nowacki and prof. Z. Wiatrowski, are exceptionally large. In this context of large amounts of references and footnotes also apply to prof. S.M. Kwiatkowski, prof. A. Bogaj and also prof. B.Baraniak and prof. R. Gerlach, which means that the Authors of the reviewed textbook are at the moment significant leaders in development of today's pedagogy of work.
To complete above introduction it is necessary to add, that previous history of Polish textbook about the pedagogy of work can be reduced to the following titles, papers and publications:
1978 r. - Pedagogy of work - by Wanda Rachalska and Zygmunt Wiatrowski, WsiP, Warszawa, 2- nd edition -1980;
1980 r. - Labour pedagogy in brief, Zygmunt Wiatrowski, WSP, Bydgoszcz;
1985 r. - Labour pedagogy in brief, Zygmunt Wiatrowski, PWN, Warszawa;
1994 r. - Fundamentals of labour pedagogy , Zygmunt Wiatrowski, WSP-AB, Bydgoszcz 4-th edition -2005.       In the meantime other studies in the area of labour pedagogy have been published, like:
1999 r. - Job-knowing, Tadeusz W. Nowacki, Publisher ITeE Radom;
2000 r. - Fundamentals of vocational education, W. Furmanek, Rzeszów;
2001 r. - Vocational education. The dilemmas of theory and practice, Stefan M. Kwiatkowski, IBE, Warszawa;
2005 r. - Labour pedagogy. Vocational guidance, edited by H. Bednarczyk, J. Figurski, M. Zurek, publisher ITeE Radom;
2006 r. - The school and the labour market, edited by A. Bogaj and S.M Kwiatkowski, WN PWN, Warsaw, and numerous collections of conference proceedings and develop a problem, however, due to the applicable standards of curriculum, they are only supporting materials for students of work pedagogy faculty.
      Labour pedagogy by S.M. Kwiatkowski, A. Bogaj and B. Baraniak may be regarded as the typical textbook for students' needs and other people, who wants to find out themselves in the problematic area of work pedagogy, especially in the frameworks of Higher Vocational Studies. Indeed, the authors have adapted to the common curricula requirements, for example by repeating the titles of subsequent chapters (slightly modified) form the Fundamentals of vocational education, but accepted their interpretation of the content, is in a range of only a specified minimum. In this sense, the fundamentals of work pedagogy, a monograph and in-depth development, remain as a typical academic textbook.
      And here is the structure of contents reviewed and recommended book, intended primarily for those who begin studying the pedagogy of work as a subject in the field of pedagogical studies as well as general technical and information studies:
1) Labour pedagogy as the pedagogical sub discipline.
2) The man in the work environment.
3) Non-vocational training.
4) Non-vocational education.
5) Vocational education.
6) Adult education.
7) The problems in the Labour market.
      The presented list of items from chapters of the reviewed book revealed, that only in the case of Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 used a new semantic interpretation, which are more suited to the current socio-economic reality, which of course does not mean that in other chapters, there are no new accents. Let's give therefore all parts of the new book to more detailed analysis.
      In case of preface (too general), the authors could determine the main characteristics of the textbook and apply it in terms of comparison to the functioning so far Fundamentals of vocational education.
       In the first chapter, there are mainly the contents, which were borrowed and repeatable, and moreover presented in a nutshell. Admittedly, the reader gets the answer to the question: What is the pedagogy of work? But it does not receive incentive to own reflection on this very complex problem. It is worth to underline, that pre-vocational, pro-professional and professional education, but also continuing education of adults are parts of wider educational strategy - lifelong learning (p. 16). Valuable to emphasize is mentioning a statement of proof. S.M. Kwiatkowski (the author of that chapter) that "The problem areas of work pedagogy are changing with educational and market realities". It seems - author goes on to say - that in the coming years, these problem areas will be covered primarily:
Job knowing,
Career guidance,
Standards (norms) of professional qualifications,
Continuing education - lifelong learning" (p. 16).
      In principle, I agree with such course of predicting the nearest future, although there are not stressed all the major issues of pedagogy as a sub discipline of pedagogical work.
      Totally new, original and infused with the contemporary approach was adopted by prof. A. Bogaj in the second chapter Man in the work environment. Reader will take advantage of the presented deliberations set passwords: 2.1. Working in various stages of development of human civilization, 2.2. Education as a feature of the sources of income, 2.3. Professional work as an object of social research, 2.4. Globalisation and the professional careers. From the detailed list of problems appears, that there are clearly accentuated the utilitarian and practical aspects. Probably it enables the students passing the subject but not giving them the theoretical and methodological basics to go in for as the science. In this case the second chapter from Fundamentals of labour pedagogy clearly dominates. Or maybe there are too much reflections or information about general and colloquial pronunciation?
      In the third chapter, which deals with vocational education, there are too many reflections on the cells of the school system, while too little emphasis on the most important problems of vocational education - education through labour, technical and information education and the orientation and vocational guidance. The term of "vocational education" introduced educators of work, hence his being not to be blurred. I have to add that bibliography ending the chapter is an extreme expression of disagreement. For these reasons, I refer to Chapter III in very critical way I will not recommend it my students
      Less critical I will be to the fourth chapter (performed by prof. B. Baraniak), but this does not mean that all records and accents can be accepted by me. For example, I doubt whether a secondary school (by professional approach) can be pull into a functioning title of "Job-centred school". I also feel there is lack of explicit statement, that secondary school as a typical example of pro- professional school does not give graduates the professional qualifications. In this sense, the statement on page 99, that secondary school "allows you to acquire key skills" useful in employment is inappropriate. The author adduces to the questionable position of prof. Hejnicka - Bezwińska, I treat as an expression of confusion. Generally I can say that in this chapter there are plenty of thoughts and records, even precious, but they do not guarantee a clear pronunciation of the entire chapter, in accordance with the essence of the term, also appointed for life by the educationists of work. In the future I suggest canceling the considerations on qualifications, because they are based on the analysis of problems related to vocational training.
      The author of the fifth chapter, devoted to vocational training is prof. Barbara Baraniak. Only a 5.7 subsection prof. Stefan Kwiatkowski drew up. It is not by coincidence. He has been a Scientific Secretary of the Forecast Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN) and he is the most competent person to reveal the future of Polish vocational education. Prof. B. Baraniak in her book has put pressure on the vocational qualifications and the on the content of professional training. She is able to talk a lot about this matter, because she is an author of problematic books edition regarding the issue of professional training content. It is also true that those "vocational qualifications" are the main key-problem issues of the whole vocational education. But the students of labour pedagogy field are interested in didactic structure of vocational educate training and it was not stressed. It's a pity: in recent years in that field there are repeated not only very interesting solutions. Simply saying, the achievements of Polish didactical teaching are thrown away, whose highest representatives were and still are - prof. Kazimierz Sosnicki, prof. Wincenty Okon, prof. Czeslaw Kupisiewicz, in the case of teaching profession - prof. Tadeusz W. Nowacki. Editors of the latest studies named Pedagogy - academic book - unfortunately squandered Polish idea of teaching and prof. B. Baraniak have only mentioned it, so that's why we can consider her involved into this peculiar trend, hence she written a little about the process of vocational training or about two forms of expressing the essence of this process: a teacher of vocational school and vocational school student. Besides, explicit excess of graphic illustrations, not always sufficiently clear, and it also blurs the essence of things. Overall, therefore I can say that in that part of the development of the textbook, more emphasizing the selected problems of vocational education than teaching structure of vocational education in the school system.
      To temper this critical tone I can only say, that to explicit positive aspects of that development I am inclined to include the problems of after-school vocational education (although this was done quite simply).
      The sixth chapter was dedicated to adults' education. The author - prof. Stefan M. Kwiatkowski - in the systematic way determines the term of adults' education, mainly to the property of organization and following the educational process and others problems reflecting the characteristic of adults' education. The sixth chapter is devoted to adult education. Author - prof. Stefan M. Kwiatkowski - in a systematic manner defines the concept of adult education, the main characteristics of the organization and conduct of the educational process and other issues reflecting the essential properties of adult education. Particularly interesting and informative are two subsections: 6.3. Adults' education in the knowledge society and 6.4. The idea of learning throughout life. In the case of 6.3. it is worth mentioning the following notation:
      "In the knowledge society, the aim of education it is to gain and effective usage of four types of knowledge:
1) Knowledge of declarative (knowledge-know-what) - relating to the facts.
2) Knowledge of cause and effect (type of knowledge know-why) - related the following rights and principles in science.
3) Knowledge of procedural (knowledge know-how) - to have effect.
4) Knowledge of experts (knowledge-know-who) - to facilitate reaching to the people who are interesting in our knowledge "(p. 194).
      And further: "... the first time in the history of civilization it is attributed to such a large role to knowledge. Thus, learning through life becomes both: an individual and society target" (p. 195). Despite the stress above chapter as a particularly interesting, is only a minimum number of considerations in this regard. It is possible to notice the shortage of references this "vocational education" to the contemporary labour process and reaching the professional championship by working people.
      The last - seventh chapter - also written by prof. Stefan M. Kwiatkowski - regards the problems in the labour market. In this context, the author discusses: 7.1. Employers' expectations - standards of professional qualifications, 7.2. The European Qualifications Framework and 7.3. Educational functions of the company. The first two sections deal with the situation of repeating previous considerations, especially when once again began to write about professional qualifications. The third in turn, sub-section (7.3.) provides updated look at the workplace, and rules for its functioning on a very complex job market. But these are considerations too brief to be able helpful to a student - the prospective employee or owner - in full recognition of the road leading to employment, and even more to become an entrepreneur.
      The reviewed book of three authors ends - an index of persons and subject index. Here again we can find that the highest frequency of the received name: T. Nowacki - at 34 pages, Kwiatkowski SM (33), Z. Wiatrowski (26), A. Bogaj (15), B. Baraniak (15), R. Gerlach ( 12), K. Symela (10) and timing: training ... - at 49 pages and qualifications ... - on 36 pages. Besides in each chapter in the final part presents the issues to think about and a bibliography.
      Overall, the presented guide of Labour Pedagogy has a specific value and may give some services specifically for students and participants in vocational studies and relevant forms of studies. Certainly I will also benefit from the same source of modern knowledge in a vast area of work pedagogy in the fifth edition of Fundamentals of Labour Pedagogy.

prof. zw. dr hab. Zygmunt Wiatrowski
University of Humanities and Economics in Wloclawek

Source: Labour Pedagogy No. 51, ITeE-PIB Radom, 2007, p. 167-171.

Vocational counselling in VLC and schools.
Good practice in vocational counselling. Volume 3.
Najdychor M., Zurek M., Zywiec- Dabrowska E. (ed.)
KG OHP, Warsaw 2007, p. 307

      XXI century is becoming not only the consumer but also a transmitter of ideas and achievements earned in previous centuries, but also the creator of the modern world where nations come together to form a new quality measures and co-existence ... Formed a new society, as a group makes symbolic goods, involved in the process of globalization and using the most modern technology information ... To meet these challenges, you should make an effort to increase counselling resources ... In some part these needs are fulfilled by another exercise-book "Vocational counselling in VLC and schools" (from a review of prof. R. Parzecki).
      Transmitted to readers in December 2007 the third exercise-book; "Vocational counselling in VLC and schools" is published in series of "Good practice in vocational guidance", similarly as previous is devoted to the subject of vocational guidance for young people aged 15 to 25 years. The intention of the editorial work was to present the best form, content and methods used by career counsellors VLC and SCC. As in previous years, it is a publication of articles presenting new tools in the field of counselling work with young people, theoretical and practical issues, screenplays of group activities, multimedia presentations addressed to recipients of advisory services.
      The first chapter was devoted to the activities of the Voluntary Labor Corps in the field of vocational guidance. In the introductory article "The activities of the Voluntary Labor Corps in the field of vocational guidance" the authors presented projects implemented by the Voluntary Labor Corps for the labour market, in particular vocational guidance for young people.
      Summary of realization one of the international projects - "Always on the course" has become the main theme of the second article. Always on the course was a pilot project carried out under the Leonardo da Vinci. The period of its implementation covered the period 2005-2006 and the beginning of 2007.The main product of this project was the training course for counsellors with an online portal - - including information in English and Polish to promote vocational counselling. The author presents the results of the evaluation made by external experts and the direct beneficiaries of the project - counsellors. There were also shown the direct and indirect effects of the results.
      In the next three articles are presented outcomes of implementation of the project: "Individual Career Project - Portfolio for youth" (IPK), which ran from January to September 2007 and funded by the European Union. Thanks to these articles the readers will have an opportunity to familiarize themselves with the objectives of implementation, stages, and the research methodology and devised tools to enhance the work of a vocational counsellor with the youth, as well as the result of the evaluation.
      The second chapter refers to the general issue of vocational guidance. Theoretical considerations are presented, including designing career, career choice, motivation and education of the family and the impact of family planning education and professional careers, job search techniques, or volunteering as a form of social activism. There are shown the outlines of the development of vocational guidance for young people within the school system, which this year marks the 100th anniversary of Poland.
      The third chapter contains three publications of approximating results of the study or describing research conducted by institutions outside the network of Voluntary Labour Corps. Through this work, we can read the opinion of youth on education through labour, or with the methods of selecting employees by local entrepreneurs, and differences between personal advice and career guidance, opinions and experiences of Poles in the area of job search.
      The main topics of chapter four are methods and tools supporting the work of professional advisers, including national standards for professional qualifications, coaching, and modular vocational training programs.
      The advantage of the publication is the inclusion in chapter five lesson plans to enrich workshop of counsellors working in the Voluntary Labour Corps and School Career Centres.
      The last two chapters relate to the activity of school career centres (Chapter Six), presents an updated database of MCIZ and the MCK and the description of materials stored on CD-ROM (Chapter Seven).
      The included CD-ROM to the publication is valuable because it contains the electronic version of Publication which is enriched with multimedia presentations, and two scenarios extensive teaching: "Szoker" and "Discoverer of the skills".
      Materials for publication were collected and compiled by the Methodical Centre of Vocational Information, in cooperation with the staff of the Institute for Sustainable Technologies - National Research Institute in Radom.
      We hope that the materials contained in this booklet will introduce not only a picture of the activities of the Voluntary Labor Corps in the field of vocational guidance, but also enrich the knowledge and skills of counsellors by inspiring them to ever more creative and effective work.

> Renata Wicha
Headquarters Voluntary Labour Corps in Warsaw
Mirosław Żurek
Institute for Sustainable Technologies - National Research Institute in Radom

Source: Labour Education No. 51, ITeE-PIB Radom, 2007, p. 174-175.
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Institute for Sustainable Technologies - National Research Institute in Radom, Copyright ITeE, 2008